Discovery rules for electronically stored information
September 15, 2011 RegularNews
Discovery rules for electronically stored information
The Florida Bar’s Civil Procedure Rules Committee has submitted to the Supreme Court an out-of-cycle report proposing rule amendments to address discovery of electronically stored information. The committee proposes amendments to rules 1.200 (Pretrial Procedure); 1.201 (Complex Litigation); 1.280 (General Provisions Governing Discovery); 1.340 (Interrogatories to Parties); 1.350 (Production of Documents and Things and Entry upon Land for Inspection and Other Purposes); 1.380 (Failure to Make Discovery; Sanctions); and 1.410 (Subpoena). The court invites all interested persons to comment on the proposed amendments, which are reproduced in full below, as well as online at www.floridasupremecourt.org/decisions/proposed.shtml. An original and nine paper copies of all comments must be filed with the court on or before October 17, with a certificate of service verifying that a copy has been served on Kevin David Johnson, Committee Chair, Thompson Sizemore Gonzalez & Hearing P.A., 201 N Franklin Street, Suite 1600, Tampa 33602-5110, as well as a separate request for oral argument if the person filing the comment wishes to participate in oral argument, which may be scheduled in this case. The committee chair has until November 7 to file a response to any comments filed with the court. Electronic copies of all comments also must be filed in accordance with the court’s administrative order In re Mandatory Submission of Electronic Copies of Documents, Fla. Admin. Order No. AOSC04-84 (Sept. 13, 2004).
IN THE SUPREME COURT OF FLORIDA
IN RE: AMENDMENTS TO THE FLORIDA RULES OF CIVIL PROCEDURE – ELECTRONIC DISCOVERY, CASE NO. SC11-1542.
RULE 1.200. PRETRIAL PROCEDURE
(a) Case Management Conference. At any time after responsive pleadings or motions are due, the court may order, or a party by serving a notice may convene a case management conference. The matter to be considered shall be specified in the order or notice setting the conference. At such a conference the court may:
(1) – (4) [No Change]
(5) consider the possibility of obtaining admissions of fact and voluntary exchange of documents and electronically stored information, and stipulations regarding authenticity of documents and electronically stored information;
(6) consider the need for advance rulings from the court on the admissibility of documents and electronically stored information;
(7) discuss as to electronically stored information, the possibility of agreements from the parties regarding the extent to which such evidence should be preserved, the form in which such evidence should be produced, and whether discovery of such information should be conducted in phases or limited to particular individuals, time periods, or sources;
5 8 ) schedule disclosure of expert witnesses and the discovery of facts known and opinions held by such experts;
6 9 ) schedule or hear motions in limine;
7 10 ) pursue the possibilities of settlement;
8 11 ) require filing of preliminary stipulations if issues can be narrowed;
9 12 ) consider referring issues to a magistrate for findings of fact; and
10 13 ) schedule other conferences or determine other matters that may aid in the disposition of the action.
(b) – (d) [No Change]
1971 – 1992 Amendment. [No Change]
2012 Amendment. Subdivisions (a)(5) to (a)(7) are added to address issues involving electronically stored information.
RULE 1.201. COMPLEX LITIGATION
(a) [No Change]
(b) Initial Case Management Report and Conference. The court shall hold an initial case management conference within 60 days from the date of the order declaring the action complex.
(1) At least 20 days prior to the date of the initial case management conference, attorneys for the parties as well as any parties appearing pro se shall confer and prepare a joint statement, which shall be filed with the clerk of the court no later than 14 days before the conference, outlining a discovery plan and stating:
(A) – (I) [No Change]
(J) the possibility of obtaining agreements among the parties regarding the extent to which such electronically stored information should be preserved, the form in which such information should be produced, and whether discovery of such information should be conducted in phases or limited to particular individuals, time periods, or sources;
J K ) suggestions on the advisability and timing of referring matters to a magistrate, master, other neutral, or mediation;
K L ) a preliminary estimate of the time required for trial;
L M ) requested date or dates for conferences before trial, a final pretrial conference, and trial;
M N ) a description of pertinent documents and a list of fact witnesses the parties believe to be relevant;
N O ) number of experts and fields of expertise; and
O P ) any other information that might be helpful to the court in setting further conferences and the trial date.
(2) – (3) [No Change]
(c) The Case Management Order. The case management order shall address each matter set forth under rule 1.200(a) and set the action for a pretrial conference and trial. The case management order also shall specify the following:
(1) Dates by which all parties shall name their expert witnesses and provide the expert information required by rule 1.280(b)(
4 5 ). If a party has named an expert witness in a field in which any other parties have not identified experts, the other parties may name experts in that field within 30 days thereafter. No additional experts may be named unless good cause is shown.
(2) – (6) [No Change]
(d) [No Change]
2012 Amendment. Subdivision (b)(1)(J) is added to address issues involving electronically stored information.
RULE 1.280. GENERAL PROVISIONS GOVERNING DISCOVERY
(a) [No Change]
(b) Scope of Discovery. Unless otherwise limited by order of the court in accordance with these rules, the scope of discovery is as follows:
(1) – (2) [No Change]
(3) Electronically Stored Information. A party may obtain discovery of electronically stored information in accordance with these rules.
3 4 ) Trial Preparation: Materials. Subject to the provisions of subdivision (b)( 4 5 ) of this rule, a party may obtain discovery of documents and tangible things otherwise discoverable under subdivision (b)(1) of this rule and prepared in anticipation of litigation or for trial by or for another party or by or for that party’s representative, including that party’s attorney, consultant, surety, indemnitor, insurer, or agent, only upon a showing that the party seeking discovery has need of the materials in the preparation of the case and is unable without undue hardship to obtain the substantial equivalent of the materials by other means. In ordering discovery of the materials when the required showing has been made, the court shall protect against disclosure of the mental impressions, conclusions, opinions, or legal theories of an attorney or other representative of a party concerning the litigation. Without the required showing a party may obtain a copy of a statement concerning the action or its subject matter previously made by that party. Upon request without the required showing a person not a party may obtain a copy of a statement concerning the action or its subject matter previously made by that person. If the request is refused, the person may move for an order to obtain a copy. The provisions of rule 1.380(a)(4) apply to the award of expenses incurred as a result of making the motion. For purposes of this paragraph, a statement previously made is a written statement signed or otherwise adopted or approved by the person making it, or a stenographic, mechanical, electrical, or other recording or transcription of it that is a substantially verbatim recital of an oral statement by the person making it and contemporaneously recorded.
4 5 ) Trial Preparation: Experts. Discovery of facts known and opinions held by experts, otherwise discoverable under the provisions of subdivision (b)(1) of this rule and acquired or developed in anticipation of litigation or for trial, may be obtained only as follows:
(A)(i) interrogatories a party may require any other party to identify each person whom the other party expects to call as an expert witness at trial and to state the subject matter on which the expert is expected to testify, and to state the substance of the facts and opinions to which the expert is expected to testify and a summary of the grounds for each opinion.
(ii) Any person disclosed by interrogatories or otherwise as a person expected to be called as an expert witness at trial may be deposed in accordance with rule 1.390 without motion or order of court.
(iii) A party may obtain the following discovery regarding any person disclosed by interrogatories or otherwise as a person expected to be called as an expert witness at trial:
1. The scope of employment in the pending case and the compensation for such service.
2. The expert’s general litigation experience, including the percentage of work performed for plaintiffs and defendants.
3. The identity of other cases, within a reasonable time period, in which the expert has testified by deposition or at trial.
4. An approximation of the portion of the expert’s involvement as an expert witness, which may be based on the number of hours, percentage of hours, or percentage of earned income derived from serving as an expert witness; however, the expert shall not be required to disclose his or her earnings as an expert witness or income derived from other services.
An expert may be required to produce financial and business records only under the most unusual or compelling circumstances and may not be compelled to compile or produce nonexistent documents. Upon motion, the court may order further discovery by other means, subject to such restrictions as to scope and other provisions pursuant to subdivision (b)(
4 5 )(C) of this rule concerning fees and expenses as the court may deem appropriate.
(B) A party may discover facts known or opinions held by an expert who has been retained or specially employed by another party in anticipation of litigation or preparation for trial and who is not expected to be called as a witness at trial, only as provided in rule 1.360(b) or upon a showing of exceptional circumstances under which it is impracticable for the party seeking discovery to obtain facts or opinions on the same subject by other means.
(C) Unless manifest injustice would result, the court shall require that the party seeking discovery pay the expert a reasonable fee for time spent in responding to discovery under subdivisions (b)(
4 5 )(A) and (b)( 4 5 )(B) of this rule; and concerning discovery from an expert obtained under subdivision (b)( 4 5 )(A) of this rule the court may require, and concerning discovery obtained under subdivision (b)( 4 5 )(B) of this rule shall require, the party seeking discovery to pay the other party a fair part of the fees and expenses reasonably incurred by the latter party in obtaining facts and opinions from the expert.
(D) As used in these rules an expert shall be an expert witness as defined in rule 1.390(a).
5 6 ) Claims of Privilege or Protection of Trial Preparation Materials. When a party withholds information otherwise discoverable under these rules by claiming that it is privileged or subject to protection as trial preparation material, the party shall make the claim expressly and shall describe the nature of the documents, communications, or things not produced or disclosed in a manner that, without revealing information itself privileged or protected, will enable other parties to assess the applicability of the privilege or protection.
(c) [No Change]
(d) Limitations on Discovery of Electronically Stored Information.
(1) A person may object to discovery of electronically stored information from sources that the person identifies as not reasonably accessible because of burden or cost. On motion to compel discovery or for a protective order, the person from whom discovery is sought must show that the information sought or the format requested is not reasonably accessible because of undue burden or cost. If that showing is made, the court may nonetheless order the discovery from such sources or in such formats if the requesting party shows good cause. The court may specify conditions of the discovery, including ordering that some or all of the expenses incurred by the person from whom discovery is sought be paid by the party seeking the discovery.
(2) In determining any motion involving discovery of electronically stored information, the court must limit the frequency or extent of discovery otherwise allowed by these rules if it determines that (i) the discovery sought is unreasonably cumulative or duplicative, or can be obtained from another source or in another manner that is more convenient, less burdensome, or less expensive; or (ii) the burden or expense of the discovery outweighs its likely benefit, considering the needs of the case, the amount in controversy, the parties’ resources, the importance of the issues at stake in the action, and the importance of the discovery in resolving the issues.
d e ) Sequence and Timing of Discovery. Except as provided in subdivision (b)( 4 5) or unless the court upon motion for the convenience of parties and witnesses and in the interest of justice orders otherwise, methods of discovery may be used in any sequence, and the fact that a party is conducting discovery, whether by deposition or otherwise, shall not delay any other party’s discovery.
e f ) Supplementing of Responses. A party who has responded to a request for discovery with a response that was complete when made is under no duty to supplement the response to include information thereafter acquired.
[From SC08-2443 – Effective 10-1-11: (
f g ) Court Filing of Documents and Discovery. Information obtained during discovery shall not be filed with the court until such time as it is filed for good cause. The requirement of good cause is satisfied only where the filing of the information is allowed or required by another applicable rule of procedure or by court order. All filings of discovery documents shall comply with Florida Rule of Judicial Administration 2.425. The court shall have the authority to impose sanctions for violation of this rule.]
1972 – 1996 Amendment. [No Change]
[From SC08-2443 – Effective 10-1-11: 2011 Amendment. [No Change]
2012 Amendment. Subdivisions (b)(3) and (d) are added to address discovery of electronically stored information.
The parties should consider conferring with one another at the earliest practical opportunity to discuss the reasonable scope of preservation and production of electronically stored information. These issues may also be addressed by means of a rule 1.200 or rule 1.201 case management conference.
Under the good-cause test in subdivision (d)(1), the court should balance the costs and burden of the requested discovery, including the potential for disruption of operations or corruption of the electronic devices or systems from which discovery is sought, against the relevance of the information and the requesting party’s need for that information. Under the proportionality and reasonableness factors set out in subdivision (d)(2), the court must limit the frequency or extent of discovery if it determines that the discovery sought is excessive in relation to the factors listed.
In evaluating the good cause or proportionality tests, the court may find its task complicated if the parties know little about what information the sources at issue contain, whether the information sought is relevant, or how valuable it may be to the litigation. If appropriate, the court may direct the parties to develop the record further by engaging in focused discovery, including sampling of the sources, to learn more about what electronically stored information may be contained in those sources, what costs and burdens are involved in retrieving, reviewing, and producing the information, and how valuable the information sought may be to the litigation in light of the availability of information from other sources or methods of discovery, and in light of the parties’ resources and the issues at stake in the litigation.
RULE 1.340. INTERROGATORIES TO PARTIES
(a) – (b) [No Change]
(c) Option to Produce Records. When the answer to an interrogatory may be derived or ascertained from the records (including electronically stored information) of the party to whom the interrogatory is directed or from an examination, audit, or inspection of the records or from a compilation, abstract, or summary based on the records and the burden of deriving or ascertaining the answer is substantially the same for the party serving the interrogatory as for the party to whom it is directed, an answer to the interrogatory specifying the records from which the answer may be derived or ascertained and offering to give the party serving the interrogatory a reasonable opportunity to examine, audit, or inspect the records and to make copies, compilations, abstracts, or summaries is a sufficient answer. An answer shall be in sufficient detail to permit the interrogating party to locate and to identify, as readily as can the party interrogated, the records from which the answer may be derived or ascertained, or shall identify a person or persons representing the interrogated party who will be available to assist the interrogating party in locating and identifying the records at the time they are produced. If the records to be produced consist of electronically stored information, the records shall be produced in a form or forms in which they are ordinarily maintained or in a reasonably usable form or forms.
(d) [No Change]
(e) Service and Filing. Interrogatories shall be arranged so that a blank space is provided after each separately numbered interrogatory. The space shall be reasonably sufficient to enable the answering party to insert the answer within the space. If sufficient space is not provided, the answering party may attach additional papers with answers and refer to them in the space provided in the interrogatories. The interrogatories shall be served on the party to whom the interrogatories are directed and copies shall be served on all other parties. A certificate of service of the interrogatories shall be filed, giving the date of service and the name of the party to whom they were directed. The answers to the interrogatories shall be served upon the party originally propounding the interrogatories and a copy shall be served on all other parties by the answering party. The original or any copy of the answers to interrogatories may be filed [From SC08-2443 – Effective 10-1-11: in compliance with Florida Rule of Judicial Administration 2.425 and rule 1.280(
f g )] by any party when the court should consider the answers to interrogatories in determining any matter pending before the court. The court may order a copy of the answers to interrogatories filed at any time when the court determines that examination of the answers to interrogatories is necessary to determine any matter pending before the court.
1972 – 1988 Amendment. [No Change]
[From SC08-2443 – Effective 10-1-11: 2011 Amendment. [ No Change]]
2012 Amendment. Subdivision (c) is amended to provide for the production of electronically stored information in answer to interrogatories and to set out a procedure for determining the form in which to produce electronically stored information.
RULE 1.350. PRODUCTION OF DOCUMENTS AND THINGS AND ENTRY UPON LAND FOR INSPECTION AND OTHER PURPOSES
(a) Request; Scope. Any party may request any other party (1) to produce and permit the party making the request, or someone acting in the requesting party’s behalf, to inspect and copy any designated documents , including electronically stored information, writings, drawings, graphs, charts, photographs, phono-records, and other data compilations from which information can be obtained, translated, if necessary, by the party to whom the request is directed through detection devices into reasonably usable form, that constitute or contain matters within the scope of rule 1.280(b) and that are in the possession, custody, or control of the party to whom the request is directed; (2) to inspect and copy, test, or sample any tangible things that constitute or contain matters within the scope of rule 1.280(b) and that are in the possession, custody, or control of the party to whom the request is directed; or (3) to permit entry upon designated land or other property in the possession or control of the party upon whom the request is served for the purpose of inspection and measuring, surveying, photographing, testing, or sampling the property or any designated object or operation on it within the scope of rule 1.280(b).
(b) Procedure. Without leave of court the request may be served on the plaintiff after commencement of the action and on any other party with or after service of the process and initial pleading on that party. The request shall set forth the items to be inspected, either by individual item or category, and describe each item and category with reasonable particularity. The request shall specify a reasonable time, place, and manner of making the inspection or performing the related acts. The party to whom the request is directed shall serve a written response within 30 days after service of the request, except that a defendant may serve a response within 45 days after service of the process and initial pleading on that defendant. The court may allow a shorter or longer time. For each item or category the response shall state that inspection and related activities will be permitted as requested unless the request is objected to, in which event the reasons for the objection shall be stated. If an objection is made to part of an item or category, the part shall be specified. When producing documents, the producing party shall either produce them as they are kept in the usual course of business or shall identify them to correspond with the categories in the request. A request for electronically stored information may specify the form or forms in which electronically stored information is to be produced. If the responding party objects to a requested form, or if no form is specified in the request, the responding party must state the form or forms it intends to use. If a request for electronically stored information does not specify the form of production, the producing party must produce the information in a form or forms in which it is ordinarily maintained or in a reasonably usable form or forms. The party submitting the request may move for an order under rule 1.380 concerning any objection, failure to respond to the request, or any part of it, or failure to permit the inspection as requested.
(c) [No Change]
(d) Filing of Documents. Unless required by the court, a party shall not file any of the documents or things produced with the response. Documents or things may be filed [From SC08-2443 – Effective 10-1-11: in compliance with Florida Rule of Judicial Administration 2.425 and rule 1.280(
f g )] when they should be considered by the court in determining a matter pending before the court.
1972 – 1980 Amendment. [No Change]
[ From SC08-2443 – Effective 10-1-11: 2011 Amendment. [No Change]]
2012 Amendment. Subdivision (a) is amended to address the production of electronically stored information. Subdivision (b) is amended to set out a procedure for determining the form to be used in producing electronically stored information.
RULE 1.380. FAILURE TO MAKE DISCOVERY; SANCTIONS
(a) – (d) [No Change]
(e) Electronically Stored Information; Sanctions for Failure to Preserve. Absent exceptional circumstances, a court may not impose sanctions under these rules on a party for failing to provide electronically stored information lost as a result of the routine, good-faith operation of an electronic information system.
1972 – 2005 Amendment. [No Change]
2012 Amendment. Subdivision (e) is added to make clear that a party should not be sanctioned for the loss of electronic evidence due to the good-faith operation of an electronic information system; the language mirrors that of Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 37(e). Nevertheless, the good-faith requirement contained in subdivision (e) should prevent a party from exploiting the routine operation of an information system to thwart discovery obligations by allowing that operation to destroy information that party is required to preserve or produce. In determining good faith, the court may consider any steps taken by the party to comply with court orders, party agreements, or requests to preserve such information.
RULE 1.410. SUBPOENA
(a) – (b) [No Change]
(c) For Production of Documentary Evidence. A subpoena may also command the person to whom it is directed to produce the books, papers, documents (including electronically stored information), or tangible things designated therein, but the court, upon motion made promptly and in any event at or before the time specified in the subpoena for compliance therewith, may (1) quash or modify the subpoena if it is unreasonable and oppressive, or (2) condition denial of the motion upon the advancement by the person in whose behalf the subpoena is issued of the reasonable cost of producing the books, papers, documents, or tangible things. If a subpoena does not specify a form for producing electronically stored information, the person responding must produce it in a form or forms in which it is ordinarily maintained or in a reasonably usable form or forms. A person responding to a subpoena may object to discovery of electronically stored information from sources that the person identifies as not reasonably accessible because of undue costs or burden. On motion to compel discovery or to quash, the person from whom discovery is sought must show that the information sought or the form requested is not reasonably accessible because of undue costs or burden. If that showing is made, the court may nonetheless order discovery from such sources or in such forms if the requesting party shows good cause, considering the limitations set out in rule 1.280(d)(2). The court may specify conditions of the discovery, including ordering that some or all of the expenses of the discovery be paid by the party seeking the discovery. A party seeking a production of evidence at trial which would be subject to a subpoena may compel such production by serving a notice to produce such evidence on an adverse party as provided in rule 1.080(b). Such notice shall have the same effect and be subject to the same limitations as a subpoena served on the party.
(d) – (h) [No Change]
1972 – 1996 Amendment. [No Change]
2012 Amendment. Subdivision (c) is amended to address the production of electronically stored information pursuant to a subpoena. The procedures for dealing with disputes concerning the accessibility of the information sought or the form for its production are intended to correspond to those set out in Rule 1.280(d).
What is considered electronically stored information? ›
Electronically stored information is a legal term broadly defined as any data or documents that are created or stored on electronic media. Types of ESI are often used as electronic evidence in litigation.What types of information are part of the electronic discovery process? ›
Types of electronically stored information
In the process of electronic discovery, all types of data can serve as evidence. This can include electronic documents, such as text, images, audio, video, calendars, instant messages, cellphone data, databases, spreadsheets, animation, websites and computer programs.
(a) Remedies Under State Law—In General. At the commencement of and throughout an action, every remedy is available that, under the law of the state where the court is located, provides for seizing a person or property to secure satisfaction of the potential judgment.Why is electronic discovery a process? ›
Electronic discovery (also known as e-discovery, e discovery, or eDiscovery) is a procedure by which parties involved in a legal case preserve, collect, review, and exchange information in electronic formats for the purpose of using it as evidence.What is electronic storage of documents? ›
Electronic storage is a set of administrative and IT processes which allows documents to be stored on digital media, ensuring their legal validity and enforceability towards third parties.What are examples of electronic files? ›
Examples of electronic records include: emails, websites, Word/Excel documents, digital purchase receipts, databases, text messages, social media postings, and information stored on SharePoint sites and content management systems (Catalyst, Slack, DropBox, etc.).What kind of evidence is electronic? ›
Digital evidence is information stored or transmitted in binary form that may be relied on in court. It can be found on a computer hard drive, a mobile phone, among other place s. Digital evidence is commonly associated with electronic crime, or e-crime, such as child pornography or credit card fraud.What is privilege in electronic discovery? ›
Privileged documents are those that fall under the protections of attorney-client privilege, a legal concept that protects certain communications between a client and his or her attorney and keeps those communications confidential, even when they contain information relevant to the legal matter.What is electronic evidence? ›
Electronic evidence (also known as digital evidence) is any probative information stored or transmitted in digital form.What is the 65% rule? ›
We call it the 65% Rule, and what it means is that when a commodity or item is shipped on a pallet/skid, that item must take up at least 65% of the surface area of the pallet.
What is the 69 rule? ›
The Rule of 69 is a simple calculation to estimate the time needed for an investment to double if you know the interest rate and if the interest is compound. For example, if a real estate investor can earn twenty percent on an investment, they divide 69 by the 20 percent return and add 0.35 to the result.What is the rule of 70? ›
The rule of 70 is used to determine the number of years it takes for a variable to double by dividing the number 70 by the variable's growth rate. The rule of 70 is generally used to determine how long it would take for an investment to double given the annual rate of return.Why is eDiscovery relevant to legal practice and civil procedure? ›
This Rule provides that any party to any action may require any other party to make discovery on oath within twenty days of all documents and tape recordings relating to any matter in question in such action which are or have at any time been in the possession or control of such other party.
What is eDiscovery? eDiscovery refers to the retrieval of materials originating from a computer, and it extends beyond computer files to encompass the analysis, gathering, processing, review and production of discovery materials in electronic format from start to finish.When did electronic discovery start? ›
In 2005, two consultants, George Socha and Tom Gelbmann created the Electronic Discovery Reference Model. The name is clunky, and the model is by no means perfect, but it is the best and most commonly accepted description of the eDiscovery process.What are the examples of electronic storage form? ›
Electronic storage device: Any device used to store electronic/digital data or information. This includes but is not limited to desktop/laptop computers, servers, network devices, magnetic tape, cell phones, SmartPhones, PDAs, portable storage drives, flash drives, fax machines, copiers and digital cameras.What are the 3 types of storage? ›
- File storage. File storage, also called file-level or file-based storage, is a hierarchical storage methodology used to organize and store data. ...
- Block storage. ...
- Object storage.
- Collaborate more easily. With electronic document storage, stakeholders can review, update, track, and share documents seamlessly. ...
- Enjoy greater document security. ...
- Reduce costs and increase efficiencies. ...
- Experience simpler document management. ...
- Increase productivity.
Proof of electronically notarized document. – A document electronically notarized in accordance with the rules promulgated by the Supreme Court shall be considered as a public document and proved as a notarial document under the Rules of Court.What are the three types of electronic records? ›
Proprietary, Non-Proprietary, Open Source, and Open Standard File Formats. Proprietary formats. Proprietary file formats are controlled and supported by just one software developer.
What are the 2 types of file storage? ›
Two of the most common formats are the New Technology File System (NTFS) and File Allocation Table (FAT), the latter most commonly seen as FAT32. Both were developed by Microsoft more than a quarter century ago and are heavily used in computing.What are the rules of digital evidence? ›
Digital evidence must be authentic. Whether it's permissible in court or not will depend on how the evidence was obtained, its handling methods, and documentation of its chain of custody, from in situ to its presentation in the courtroom.What is the strongest type of evidence? ›
The most powerful type of evidence, direct evidence requires no inference and directly proves the fact you are investigating. The evidence alone is the proof, if you believe the accounts.
Definition. In the law of evidence, certain subject matters are privileged, and can not be inquired into in any way. Such privileged information is not subject to disclosure or discovery and cannot be asked about in testimony.What is the difference between electronic discovery and traditional discovery? ›
How Does Electronic Discovery Differ from Traditional Methods of Discovery? Electronic discovery differs from traditional methods of discovery in that electronic documents present unique opportunities for obtaining information and special problems during document production.Can privileged information be used as evidence? ›
Even if it is relevant to a case, a privileged communication cannot be used as evidence in court. Privileged communications are controversial because they exclude relevant facts from the truth-seeking process.How do you prove digital evidence and signature in court? ›
Proving the legality of a digital signature involves a two-step process: having the signature admitted as evidence and then demonstrating its trustworthiness. To admit a signature as evidence, you will need expert testimony describing the record creation process and supporting its accuracy.What are three 3 sources of digital evidence? ›
There are many sources of digital evidence, but for the purposes of this publication, the topic is divided into three major forensic categories of devices where evidence can be found: Internet-based, stand-alone computers or devices, and mobile devices.What are the two types of digital evidence? ›
- Volatile data: Volatile data is digital information stored in a temporary medium. This data is lost when the device is powered off. ...
- Nonvolatile data: Nonvolatile data is digital information stored in permanent mediums, such as hard disks.
Summary of Rule of 60 vesting condition
Below is a summary of the vesting condition for Rule of 60 that applies to eligible associates. You meet the Rule of 60 if your age plus length of service (computed as full years and completed months) equals 60, with a minimum of 10 years of service and no minimum age.
What is the 80% retirement rule? ›
What is the Rule of 80? This provision creates a so-called Rule of 80, a new definition of Normal Retirement for members of the Hybrid Defined Benefit Component. This allows members to claim a full, unreduced pension benefit if their combined age and years of service equal at least 80, beginning at age 50.Does the retirement age of 65 still work? ›
A. You can continue working and start receiving your retirement benefits. If you start your benefits before your full retirement age, your benefits are reduced a fraction of a percent for each month before your full retirement age.What is the rule of 42? ›
The so-called Rule of 42 is one example of a philosophy that focuses on a large distribution of holdings, calling for a portfolio to include at least 42 choices while owning only a small amount of most of those choices.What is the rule of 44? ›
Rule 44 requires that a party who “questions the constitutionality of an Act of Congress” in a proceeding in which the United States is not a party must provide written notice of that challenge to the clerk.What is the rule 100? ›
The rule of 100 was created to help people determine the percentage of their portfolio that can be invested in risky instruments. Risky instruments like stocks, bonds, and mutual funds. The rule works this way: Take the number 100, subtract your age, and that determines the percentage of your money that can be at risk.What is the difference between Rule of 70 and 72? ›
For instance, let's compare the rules on an investment that has a 3% interest rate compounded daily. According to the rule of 72, you'll double your money in 24 years (72 / 3 = 24). According to the rule of 70, you'll double your money in about 23.3 years (70 / 3 = 23.3).Whats the 30/70 rule? ›
“The 70/30 method is a budgeting technique to help you allocate your money,” Kia says. Put simply, each month, 70% of the money that you earn will be your spending money, including essentials like bills and rent as well as luxuries, and 30% of the money you earn will go towards your savings.What is the difference between Rule 72 and Rule 69? ›
Rule of 72 vs. Rule of 69.
|Interest Rate||Rule of 72 -No of Years||Rule of 69-No of Years|
|23.50%||3.06 Yrs||3.29 Yrs|
Discovery enables the parties to know before the trial begins what evidence may be presented. It s designed to prevent "trial by ambush," where one side doesn t learn of the other side s evidence or witnesses until the trial, when there s no time to obtain answering evidence.What is the purpose of discovery of documents? ›
The purpose of discovery is to ensure that all documents that are relevant to the matters in issue in the legal proceeding are available as evidence to the parties and the Court.
Why the discovery process is important and significant? ›
Discovery is a very important process because it allows you to collect the information necessary to assess the strengths and weaknesses of both your case and the case of the opposing party. It also shows you where you and the other party agree and disagree.What are the steps in the discovery process? ›
Steps Of The Discovery Process. There are four key actions in the discovery process which include interrogatories, request for documents, request for admissions, and depositions.How do I determine what metadata should be preserved or discovered in eDiscovery? ›
Factors that may be considered in determining the scope of information that should be preserved include the nature of the issues raised in the matter, the accessibility of the information, the probative value of the information, and the relative burdens and costs of the preservation effort.How do you conduct discovery? ›
Discovery is conducted by sending written requests in a prescribed form to the opposing party specifically listing the type of discovery sought, the manner in which it will be obtained, and the time for complying with the request. Check your state and local rules for the required form of these requests.What is another name for electronic discovery? ›
Electronic discovery -- also called e-discovery or ediscovery -- is the process of obtaining and exchanging evidence in a legal case or investigation.Why is electronic discovery a process? ›
Electronic discovery (also known as e-discovery, e discovery, or eDiscovery) is a procedure by which parties involved in a legal case preserve, collect, review, and exchange information in electronic formats for the purpose of using it as evidence.What is eDiscovery process? ›
Electronic discovery (sometimes known as e-discovery, ediscovery, eDiscovery, or e-Discovery) is the electronic aspect of identifying, collecting and producing electronically stored information (ESI) in response to a request for production in a law suit or investigation.What does electronically recorded mean? ›
The term “electronic record” means a contract or other record created, generated, sent, communicated, received, or stored by electronic means.What is electronically stored quizlet? ›
The term used to describe discovery of ESI(Electronically Stored Information), that is, documents created, disseminated, and stored via electronic means.What are the benefits of storing information electronically? ›
- Collaborate more easily. With electronic document storage, stakeholders can review, update, track, and share documents seamlessly. ...
- Enjoy greater document security. ...
- Reduce costs and increase efficiencies. ...
- Experience simpler document management. ...
- Increase productivity.
What is eDiscovery technology? ›
Electronic discovery (sometimes known as e-discovery, ediscovery, eDiscovery, or e-Discovery) is the electronic aspect of identifying, collecting and producing electronically stored information (ESI) in response to a request for production in a law suit or investigation.Is the electronic recording admissible as an electronic evidence? ›
– An electronic document is admissible in evidence if it complies with the rules on admissibility prescribed by the Rules of Court and related laws and is authenticated in the manner prescribed by these Rules.What is main purpose of electronic record? ›
This is to maintain records authenticity, reliability, integrity, trustworthiness, and usability throughout lifecycle. Hence, electronic records system is a system specifically designed to manage the maintenance and disposition of records throughout its lifecycle.How records can be kept electronically? ›
Digital records are best maintained in a managed environment that includes regular system back-ups and a disaster recovery plan. Digital records can be stored on-line, near-line (for example, a department document management system), or off-line. A good example of an on-line system is an electronic mail system.What is eDiscovery quizlet? ›
eDiscovery is the process of finding electronic data or information for legal evidence.What is the electronic collection storage and retrieval of data referred to as quizlet? ›
Data Warehousing. The collection, storage, and retrieval of data in electronic files.What is an electronic copy of a document called? ›
A soft copy (sometimes spelled "softcopy") is an electronic copy (or e-copy) of some type of data, such as a file viewed on a computer's display or transmitted as an email attachment. Such material, when printed, is referred to as a hard copy.What is the purpose of storing information? ›
The main purpose of storing any information is for easy retrieval in the future when it is required. It is also part of a company's business practice. Storing documents have to be done in proper procedure so that it is easier to find.How do you maintain electronic data and documents? ›
- Organization Is the Key to Electronic File Management.
- Use the Default Installation Folders for Program Files.
- One Place for All Documents.
- Create Folders in a Logical Hierarchy.
- Nest Folders Within Folders.
- Follow the File Naming Conventions.
- Be Specific.
Takeaway: Before taking on your first case, make sure you understand these 7 concepts: (1) Cloud eDiscovery, (2) Drag-and-drop uploads, (3) Advanced searches, (4) Virtual review tools, (5) Technology-assisted reviews, (6) Production formats, (7) Metadata.
Where is eDiscovery data stored? ›
Meeting chats and files shared in meeting chat – Meeting chats are stored in the OneDrive for Business account of the user who shares the file.What is the difference between discovery and eDiscovery? ›
Discovery refers to the first phase of litigation during which the parties to a dispute must provide each other with all relevant case evidence, including records and information. Electronic discovery, or eDiscovery, refers to discovery in which the information sought is in electronic format.